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Ohio Measures Up: Indicators for Intimate Partner / Domestic Violence

This dashboard of State Rankings: Indicators Associated with Intimate Partner / Domestic Violence represents community and societal level indicators that the ODVN Prevention Team has researched and will monitor through at least 2023. The Prevention Team believes that the national rankings paint a strong picture of Ohio’s public health status. Considered collectively, these indicators suggest that when US rankings are lower, Ohio’s community public health status will be improved. Thus, community problems such as sexual and domestic violence (and other forms of violence) are likely to be reduced when we all work together to improve these indicators. In other words, the more Ohio invests in its people and community infrastructure, the better off all Ohioans will be. Hover and click on the Ohio indicator rankings below to learn more. Explore indicator Fact Sheets that contain more information. Share Fact Sheets with your peers and networks to advocate for social change. Note: Some of the indicator trend lines are missing data. This missing data should not be interpreted that Ohio was first in the nation for that point in time.

  • Infant Mortality

    Ohio’s infant mortality rate, while improving slightly over 2016 (from ranking 43 to 41/50), the disparity between rates of Black baby’s deaths compared to white baby’s deaths (13.9 as compared to 5.4 per 1,000 live births) is worse than most developing countries. At the root of this disparity are systemic inequality and racism which create conditions of toxic stress and negative maternal health outcomes, especially for Black women.

    6.9

    infant deaths per 1,000 live births


    5.4

    Caucasian

    13.9

    Black

    6.1

    Hispanic

  • Child Well-being

    According to the United Health Foundation’s America’s Health Rankings, Ohio’s child poverty rate in 2018 was 20.5%. That means more than one in five Ohio children were living in poverty. Too often, living in poverty means children live in conditions of resource deprivation and food insecurity among other inequitable environmental conditions.

    644,000

    Children in families that receive public assistance in Ohio (2018)

    224,000

    Children in extreme poverty (50 percent poverty) in Ohio (2018)


    $70,000.00

    Median family income among households with children in Ohio (2018)

    479,000

    Children living in households that were food insecure at some point during the year in Ohio (2016)

    573,000

    Children in low-income households with a high housing cost burden in Ohio (2016)

  • Child Maltreatment

    Ohio ranks 28 out of 50 states in reported incidents of child maltreatment for 2018. In 2012, 21,372 incidents were reported to and received services through Ohio Child Protective Services agencies. Intakes were trending downward through 2016 when 17,687 were reported, investigated and acted upon. Then, in 2018, incidents and intakes spiked to 110,550. We believe this is likely due to the opioid epidemic that has devastated thousands of Ohio families through addiction and overdose deaths and is an indicator of community health and well being.

    110550

    Ohio Reported Incidence (2018)


    58.3%

    White

    25.1%

    Black

    6%

    Hispanic

  • Funding for Public Education

    In 2018, Ohio had $13,027 spending per pupil and ranked 20 among the states. In 1997, the Supreme Court ruled Ohio’s public school funding system of property taxes unconstitutional. However, a legislative fix to the disparity between high property tax (wealthy) and low property tax (poor) school districts has not been passed by the Ohio legislature. Thus, school districts in resource deprived communities such as inner city schools in Cleveland and Columbus, for example, continue to struggle to attain positive student outcomes. This is an indicator of income inequality.

    $13,027

    State Spending per Pupil - Public Elementary and Secondary School Finance (2018)

    $15,321

    Total Spending Per Pupil - Public Elementary and Secondary School Finance (2018)


  • K12 Expulsion Rates

    An expulsion is an action taken by the local educational agency of removing a child from his/her regular school for disciplinary purposes for the remainder of the school year (or longer) in accordance with local educational agency policy. The school to prison pipeline is a commonly used term for the disproportionally high rate of expulsions for Black males. Excessive discipline of Black students disproportionately leads to significantly higher rates of expulsion. This leads to multiple adverse outcomes including dropping out of school and increasing risk factors for violence perpetration. This glaring disparity impacts future educational attainment, employment opportunities, and accumulation of wealth.

    34

    Overall expulsion rate for Ohio (2016)


    27

    White Males (2016)

    76

    Black Males (2016)

    27

    Latino Males (2016)

  • Sexual Violence

    In 2012 the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) findings. These data provide a snapshot of the prevalence of domestic violence and sexual violence in the US. It is important to note that sexual violence is an under reported crime. This is likely because of the context of these crimes and the confusion/trauma that occurs when one is victimized by someone they know. All too often, the perpetrator of sexual violence is known to the victim. Hence, the distinction of intimate partner violence.

    45.3 per 100,000 inhabitants nationally

    Annual Reported Sexual Assaults (2018)

    Data for 2018 is not yet available. However, in 2015, the average age of sexual assault victims was just under 19 years.

    Average Age of Sexual Assault Victims (2018)


    This data is not yet available. However, in 2015, 83% of sexual violence victims were female identified.

    Percentage of Female Victims (2018)

    2018 data is not yet available. However, in 2016 the incidence of rape per 100,000 was 48.1

    Incidence of Rape per 100,000 (2018)

  • Intimate Partner Violence

    The statistics below represent the number of arrests reported to the Ohio Attorney General’s Office by local law enforcement entities. The caveat is that many localities do not report to the AG. However, these numbers mirror rates that were documented via the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) in 2012. These statistics could be viewed as ‘the tip of the iceberg’ with many more going unreported. Still, clearly, the overwhelming majority of perpetrators are men and victims are women. This is an indicator of gender inequity and placing less value on the lives of women and girls.

    17,919

    Women: Total number of domestic violence incidents perpetrated by women (2018)

    46,774

    Men: Total number of domestic violence incidents perpetrated by men (2018)


    64%

    Caucasian

    33%

    African American

    2%

    Hispanic

  • Wage Equity Gap

    The wage gap is an indicator of the disparity between income earned by men and women. More importantly, look at the disparity between men and Black and Hispanic women. This provides a more meaningful picture of the gaps in income. These gaps are historical and have lasting impacts on communities of color in terms of creating equitable and sustainable (wealthy) communities.

    $0.75

    Wage Equity Gap for Women Overall (2018)


    $0.61

    Hispanic (2018)

    $0.64

    Black (2018)

    $0.86

    Asian (2016)

  • Affordable Housing

    Housing is considered unaffordable if it costs more than 30% of a household’s income. Households with housing costs higher than 50% of their income are considered severely cost burdened and they are at a higher risk of becoming homeless. Intimate partner violence is the primary cause of homelessness for women. Housing instability and homelessness increase risk factors for intimate partner violence by increasing economic stress for families and communities.

    248,749

    Shortage of rental homes for extremely low income renters (2017)

    42

    Rental units for every 100 extremely low-income tenant households in Ohio (2018)


  • Public Transportation Access And Spending

    Reliable transportation is crucial for workers, particularly low-income workers who are less likely to work from home or have flexible work schedules.Public transportation in Ohio is funded primarily through federal funds and local taxes. An over-reliance on local funding makes disparities between different areas more likely because some regions will have the means and desire to provide access to public transportation and others will not. Access to public transportation is a support for low-wage workers. In communities where there is no access to public transportation members who work in low wage jobs may be in a more precarious position in terms of long-term employment and better paying jobs across town.

    115 million

    Ohio’s public transit system rides in 2017. (This number is expected to reach 250 million by 2025.)

    61

    Urban and rural transit agencies in the state that are funded by a mix of local, state, and federal funding.


    45th

    Ohio's ranking in public transit spending despite having the 14th largest ridership.

  • Imprisonment Rates Nonviolent Crimes

    The US is the world’s leader in incarceration. In the last 40 years, since 1980, incarceration rates have increased nationally by 500%. In Ohio, a total of 50,431 were imprisoned with 46,153 males and 4,278 females. The incarceration rate per 100k was 431 in 2018. The impact of mass incarceration on the Black community is devastating with one in three Black men imprisoned. The disparity between Black and white imprisonment is glaringly inequitable and disproportionate.

  • Voter Registration Turnout

    Voter registration and turnout is a proxy measure or indicator for community support and cohesion which is a protective factor for intimate partner violence and other forms of violence. The theory is that in communities where voter registration and participation is high community members will be more connected to one another and provide one another with support. During the 2020 presidential election, extremely impoverished zip codes in Cleveland and East Cleveland, Ohio had turnout rates lower than 25% when other zip codes had participation rates closer to 50%.

    55.72%

    Ohio’s voting eligible population that voted during the 2018 midterm election (2018)

    73.99%

    Ohio’s voting eligible population that voted during the 2020 presidential election (2020)


    70.8% registered and 53.9% voted

    White (2018)

    68% registered and 48.6% voted

    Black (2018)

    65.4% registered and 32.6% voted

    Hispanic (2018)

  • Volunteerism

    Volunteerism is a proxy measure or indicator for community support and cohesion. The theory is that in communities where volunteerism is high, community members are taking care of one another in a meaningful way through volunteering or donating money to charitable organizations.

    % of Ohio residents who volunteer (2018)

    33.2

    % of residents who donate $25 or more to charity. (2014)

    49.7


  • References

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